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Patient Guide

Infertility in Women: Signs and Causes

infertility in woman

According to a study on the infertility rate in India, it is estimated that nearly 27.5 million couples who are actively trying to conceive suffer from infertility. Infertility is defined as trying to conceive for at least 12 months with frequent and unprotected intercourse, with no positive result. The reasons for this may be attributed to stress, changes in lifestyle, eating habits, health problems, among others.

Be it biology or other environmental factors, male or female infertility can take a toll on the relationship of the couple. However, thanks to the advancement in medicine and technology, once the infertility cause is diagnosed, there are many treatments for fertility available. Thus, for this read, let’s check out the common signs and causes of infertility in women. This will help you seek the right treatment from the best fertility clinic in Mumbai.

What Are The Common Signs of Infertility in a Woman?

  • Irregular or Painful Periods: While the menstrual cycle varies between women, irregular periods can contribute to infertility. Irregular menstrual cycles are a sign of ovulation disorder, whereas painful or heavy periods can be a symptom of endometriosis or fibroids. These are some of the common causes of infertility in women.
  • Hormonal Imbalance: This is one of the other common signs of infertility in women that often go unnoticed. Hormonal imbalance can cause fertility issues, and some of the signs of hormonal imbalance include reduced sex drive, excessive body hair, neck swelling, unexplained weight loss/gain, severe acne, etc.
  • Pain During Intercourse: There have been instances where some women have experienced pain during intercourse their entire lives. While some might attribute it to being normal, it is not the case. In many instances, pain during intercourse is an underlying sign of medical conditions such as fibroids, endometriosis, infections, or developmental disorders. If these are not treated, it could affect reproductive health. Thus, pain during intercourse needs to be evaluated thoroughly, as at times it can be a sign of underlying disorder.
  • Obesity: This causes a hormonal imbalance that could affect a woman’s fertility. Women who are obese have difficulty conceiving, plus they have a higher health risk during pregnancy, which leads to poor pregnancy outcomes. Tuberculosis and excessive weight loss can also cause fertility issues in women. When you are underweight, it affects the hormone production, i.e. your ovaries produce less estrogen than necessary, which has an impact on ovulation.

What Are The Primary Causes of Infertility in Women?

  • Damaged/Blocked Fallopian Tubes: This is one of the causes of infertility in women. Blocked or damaged fallopian tubes, makes it difficult for the sperm to reach and fertilize the eggs. Based on the diagnosis, whether the tubes are partially or fully blocked, treatments will be recommended. Some of the reasons for damaged fallopian tubes are endometriosis, pelvic infection or surgery, tuberculosis, etc.
  • Ovulation Disorders: One of the most common reasons for infertility in women, ovulation disorder refers to infrequent or absent ovulation. Some of the reasons for ovulation disorders are PCOS, premature ovarian failure, obesity, stress, lifestyle habits (alcohol, smoking), etc.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS causes hormonal imbalance, which results in irregular periods and sub-fertility. It results in excess production of the hormone – Androgens, which affects the ovulation process. A gynaecologist can suggest effective PCOS treatments based on your diagnosis.
  • Endometriosis: One of the primary reasons for infertility, endometriosis is a reproductive disorder that can cause female infertility. Endometriosis is a disorder that causes abnormal growth of tissues outside the uterus. This can damage the fallopian tubes, and can also cause chemical changes, which could affect the implantation process, thus affecting fertility at various levels. Depending on how severe it is, a fertility specialist would recommend effective treatments.

How to Improve Fertility Or Ways to Increase Fertility?

There are many natural ways to increase fertility. Starting from making healthy lifestyle choices, having a balanced and nutritional diet, maintaining a healthy weight, increasing physical activity, among others. A fertility evaluation can also help find out female infertility causes.

For health or genetic conditions, you need to seek professional help. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is another option for couples struggling with infertility. Also, there are fertility clinics that offer fertility wellness services, including fertility counselling, fertility nutritional advice based on assessment, as well as mind & body wellness, which you can opt for.


Those struggling to conceive need to look out for common signs of infertility, as this would help you determine the underlying cause for it. Once diagnosed, seeking appropriate treatment would help solve fertility issues. Making lifestyle changes is also equally important for the overall good health of an individual. And if all else fails, one can always opt for IVF treatment, surrogacy, among others. This can help make your dreams of having a baby come true.

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